Abstract

The present study was conducted at the Bafoussam III municipal slaughterhouse of the West Region of Cameroon in a bit to record the prevalence and associated risk factors of morpho-pathological conditions of the genitals organs of does and ewes. A total of 404 genital tracts were examined, including 360 and 44 for does and ewes, respectively. Prior to slaughter, the animals were characterized by their species, breed, age, live weight, and Body Condition Score (BCS). After slaughter and evisceration, the entire genital tract of each female was thoroughly inspected for gross pathological abnormalities. The left and right ovaries of each animal were removed, stored in physiological saline, and transported to the Bamougoum Veterinary and Zootechnical Center (BVZC) laboratory within two (02) hours of organ collection in order to determine the follicular population and ovarian pathologies. The mean age (months), weight (kg) and BCS were 43.54 ± 2.34, 19.32 ± 5.97 and 2.45 ± 0.63, respectively. The mean follicular population was 18.15±8.17 per ovary with 18.68 ± 8.17 and 13.93±6.91 for does and ewe respectively (P = 0.082). A gravid rate of 44.60% was recorded. The overall prevalence was 33.91% with species prevalence of 31.19% and 2.72% for does and ewes respectively (P = 0.238). Genital pathologies were most prevalent in the ovaries, followed by the uterus, the vagina, and vulva, the oviducts with prevalence of 22.5%, 13%, 8.3%, and 5.90%, respectively. The most common ovarian pathologies were cystic ovaries (7.2%), oophoritis (3.7%), ovarian adhesions (11.4%); those of the uterus included endometritis (3.2%), Cysticercus tenuicollis cysts (6.2%); salpingeal disorders included para-ovarian cysts (3.7%), hydrosalpinx (2.2%). Affections of the vagina and vulva were in majority represented by vulvitis followed by Cysticercus tenuicollis cysts with prevalence of 5.2% and 2.1% respectively. Age and live weight were the two main risk factors correlated with the prevalence of genital tract abnormalities. On one hand, age (months) of animals studied correlated significantly with ovaro-bursal adhesion (P<0.01, r=0.08), uterine abscess (P<0.05, r= -0.13), and vulvitis (P<0.05, r=0.12). Whereas live weight correlated significantly (P<0.01, r = -0.05) with uterine Cysticercus tenuicollis cysts.  The prevalence of female genital tract abnormalities may suggest that genital diseases are a serious limitation to small ruminant reproduction.Keywords: Small ruminants, genital, morpho-pathological, risk factors, Bafoussam, Cameroon.Citation: Kouamo, J., Asongafec, T.B., 2020. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Genital Abnormalities of Does and Ewes in the West Region of Cameroon. PSM Vet. Res., 5(3): VR-2020-030.