Yield Performance and Factor Analysis for Superior Cultivars Identification in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
The purpose of our study was to differentiate the varieties of wheat depending on their morphological traits relating to yield and to estimate those factors which are responsible for the highest yield plant -1. The 26 different types of local wheat varieties were grown in the field conditions of Hazara University Mansehra, seeded in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replications. Some of the Morphological traits were significant namely, spike length, flag leaf area, awn length, grains per spike, spikelets per spike, number of tillers, peduncle length, grains weight, and grain yield but others were non-significant such as, leaf angel, days to headings, days to maturity, plant height and harvest index. Kaghan-93 (7.77g plant-1) was seen to be the highest production of yield and was observed best within 26 varieties. Factors examination exposed 5 essential factors that estimated 73.24% of the total differences, depending on principal component processes. One of these was awn length that seems to be 18.83% in the direction of the yield. While the second and third component were (16.38%) and (14.53%) for yield component and plant architecture respectively. The fourth factor was the growth factor which was estimated upto 12.86% and maturity parameters was 10.26%. Depending on these factors selection will be conducive to use highest yield genotypes and are suggested for further crop renovation programs.
Wheat, morphological traits, varieties, harvest, parameters.
To cite this article:
Kamran, M., Inamullah, Iqbal, M.S., 2016. Yield Performance and Factor Analysis for Superior Cultivars Identification in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). PSM Biol. Res., 01(1): 11-15.
One the world’s biggest wheat producing country is Pakistan with almost 23.42 million tons with its sophisticated region of 9.062 million hectare, while the production of grain obtained is 2585 kg/hectare (Anonymous, 2009). The increasing population day by day is one of the biggest factors to divert our attention towards the maximum yield of crops on sustainable foundations (Inamullah et al., 2006). Agricultural characteristics are generally perceptible involving the grain production and responsible for the factors including either directly or indirectly (Khan and Dar, 2009; Ali et al., 2009). It is clearly implicit that grain yield in wheat included a variety of components and the factors such as cultivar appropriateness, husbandry and ecological circumstances affect these components. Thus, the aims of the propagation programs are to get the maximum production of grains (Inamullah et al., 2006).
The Assortment method of yield and its component’s relationship is difficult to understand, which can be easily understood by using different types of mathematical analysis (Guertin and Bailey, 1982). By using the multivariate technique it is reported that factor analysis is responsible for involvement of variables in fraction and giving additional information as compared to simple correlation matrix (Biabani and Pakniyat, 2008). Moreover, different types of variables are minimized to hidden factors by factor analysis and provide further knowledge and instructions (Azizi et al., 2001).
The present study was planned to differentiate the varieties of wheat depending on their morphological traits relating to yield and to estimate factors responsible for the highest yield plant -1.
Afzal, M., Nazir, M.S., 1986. Response of two semi dwarf wheat varieties to sowing dates. J. Agric. Res., 24: 110-14.
Ali, M. A., Anwer, J., Hussain, M., Sabir, W., Khan, M.A., Zulkiffar, Abdullah, 2009. Assessment of yield criteria in bread wheat through correlation and path analysis. J. Anim. Plant Sci., 19(4): 185-188.
Anonymous, 2009. Economic Survey, Economic Affairs Division, Govt. Pakistan., Islamabad.
Anonymous. 2011. International Grains Council. GMR No. 412 30 June 2011.
Ashfaq, M., Khan, A.S., Ali, Z., 2003. Association of morphological traits with grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Int. J. Agric. Biol., 5: 262-264.
Azizi, F., Rezaie, A.M., Mir, A.M., Meibodi, M., 2001. Evaluation genetic and phenotypic variation and factor analysis on morphological traits in bean genotypes. J. Sci. Technol. Agric. Nat. Resour., 5: 127-140.
Biabani, A.R., Pakniyat, H., 2008. Evaluation of seed yield related characters in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Pakistan J Biol Sci., 11: 1157-1160.
Fischer, R.A., Quail, K.J., 1990. The effect of major dwarfing genes on yield potential in spring wheat. Euphytica, 46: 51-56.
Guertin, W.H., Bailey, J.P., 1982. Introduction to modern factor analysis. Edvards Brothers Inc., Mishigan. 405p.
Hussain, A., Maqsood, M., Ahmad, A., Wajid, A., Ahmad, Z., 1997. Effect of irrigation during various development stages on components of yield and harvest index of different wheat cultivars. Pakistan J. Agric. Sci., 34: 104-107.
Inamullah, Ahmad, H., Muhammad, F., Din, S., Hussain, G., Gul, R., 2006. Diallel analysis of the inheritance pattern of agronomic traits of bread wheat. Pak. J. Bot., 38(4): 1169-1175.
Inamullah, Ahmad, H., Muhammad, F., Din, S., Hussain, G., Gul, R., 2006. Evaluation of the heterotic and hetrobeltiotic potential of wheat genotypes for improved yield. Pak. J. Bot., 38(4): 1159-1167.
Jabbar, A., Saeed, M., Gaffar, A., 1999. Agrochemical weed management in wheat. Pakistan J. Agric. Sci., 36: 33-38.
Kahrizi, D., Cheghamirza, K., Kakeai, M., Mohammadi, R., Ebadi. A., 2010. Heritability and genetic gain of some morphophysiological variables of durum wheat (Triticumturgidum var. durum). Afr. J. Biotechnol., 9(30): 4687-4691.
Khan, M.H., Dar. A.N., 2009. Correlation and path coefficient analysis of some quantitative traits in wheat. Afr. Crop Sci. J., 18(1): 9-14.
Mansouri, S., Soltani najaf Abadi, M., 2004. Evaluation and systemic analysis of yield relationship between its components for breeding of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Seed and Plant J., 20: 167-149.
Ministry of Food Agriculture and Live Stock, Islamabad Pakistan. 2011.
Richard, R.A., 1992. The effect of dwarfing genes in spring wheat in dry environments. I. Agronomic characteristics. Aust. J. Agric. Res., 43(3): 517-527.
Sharar, M.S., Yaqub, M., Ayub, M.,1989. Growth and yield of five wheat genotypes as influenced by different irrigation frequencies. Pakistan Sci. Ind. Res. 2: 344-5.
Vahid, M., Shahreyari, R., Imani, A.A., khayanezad, M., 2011. Factor analysis of wheat quantitative traits on yield under terminal drought. American-Eurasian J. Agric. Environ. Sci., 10 (2): 157-159.