Vaginal Lactobacilli: Probiotic Potential and Biotherapeutic Effects
Lactobacilli species predominantly found in vaginal microbiota play an important role in protecting healthy women from genital and urogenital infections and preserving the natural balance of vaginal microbiota. Lactobacilli are responsible for the protection of vaginal microbiota by different mechanisms. First of all, lactobacilli bacteria produce low vaginal pH with lactic acid and prevent the development of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, lactobacilli inhibit the binding of pathogenic microorganisms by producing hydrogen peroxide, diacetyl, inhibitory enzymes, bacteriocin, and bacteriocin-like antimicrobial agents and adhering to the receptors in the vaginal epithelial cells. In addition, they contain surface binding proteins that inhibit the binding of pathogenic microorganisms to vaginal epithelial cells by their coaggregation capabilities (Stojanovic, 2012; Stoyancheva et al., 2014; George et al., 2018).
World Health Organization and the Food and Agricultural Organization defined probiotics as ‘live microorganisms that when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host’ (FAO/WHO, 2002; Brazilya, 2016). Probiotics play a pivotal role in health maintenance and the prevention of many disorders. Lactic acid bacteria constitute the most important group of probiotic microorganisms, but lactobacilli species are the most commonly used probiotic microorganisms ( Önal et al., 2005).
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Iqbal, M.N., 2019. Vaginal Lactobacilli: Probiotic Potential and Biotherapeutic Effects. PSM Microbiol., 4(3): MB-2019-042.