Molecular Identification of Filamentous Fungi Diversity in North Coast Beaches Sands of Puerto Rico

Author's: Lourdes Echevarría
Authors' Affiliations
Article Type: Research Article     Published: Dec. 30, 2019 Pages: 51-61
DOI:        Views 417       Downloads 0

Abstract:

The Northern region has a great variety of beaches with diverse microbial characteristics. Beach sands receive direct contamination from the garbage generated by people, which serves as nutrient for fungi growth. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the filamentous fungi diversity of four popular beaches; identify the genus and species; and identify the taxonomic relationship between the most abundant fungi. The beaches studied are located in the towns of Vega Baja, Manatí, Barceloneta and Arecibo. One sample of dry sand per month from three equidistant points was acquired every month for a year in each beach. The samples were homogenized according to dry (December-April) and humid (May-November) seasons, for a total of four composite samples per season. The DNA of each sample was isolated and quantified; and, upon sequencing, evaluated by metagenomics analysis with MG-RAST. There were 104 fungi species identified by DNA sequencing analysis. The most abundant were: Aspergillus penicillioides, Aspergillus terreus, Microascus sp., Arthrographis kalrae, Paramicrosporidium sp., Dokmaia sp., Gliomastix polychroma and Aspergillus sp. The taxonomic analysis demonstrated that there is no relationship in the genus of the most abundant species. As significant finding, 66 species of new registries were identified, including Malassezia restricta, Arthrographics eremomycyces, and Cephaliophora tropica. Not only were many of the species pathogenic, several genera of filamentous fungi have been previously isolated from patients in nasal culture, and can cause eye, respiratory and skin disease. The majority of these fungi use direct contact and air transport as transmission vehicle to the host.

Keywords:

PCR, DNA, pathogen, beach, sand, filamentous fungi, soil fungi.

Citation:

Echevarría, L., 2019. Molecular Identification of Filamentous Fungi Diversity in North Coast Beaches Sands of Puerto Rico. Int. J. Mol. Microbiol., 2(3): 51-61.

REFERENCES

Abril, M.J., Guisantes, J.A., Rubio M.F., 1991. Estudio de los dermatofitos yotros hongos queratinófilicos de los suelos de Navarra. Rev. Iberoamericana de Micología., 8:79-88.

Ambujavalli, B., Anupma, J., 2015. Malassezia Can it be ignored? Indian J. Dermatol., 60(4):332-339.

Alejandra, G., Josepa, G., Josep, C., de Hoog, S., Guarro, J., 2012. Two new species ofAcremonium from Spanish soils. Micología., 104(6): 1456 -1465.

Alwakeel, S.S., 2016. Molecular identification of fungi isolated from coastal regions of Red Sea, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Journal of the Association of Arab Universities for basic and applied sciences. 24:115-119.

Balajee, S.A., Borman, A.M.,Brandt, M.E., et al. 2009. Sequence- based identificartion of Aspergillus, fusarium, and mucorales species in the clinical mycology laboratory: where are we and where should we go from here? J. Clin. Microbiol., 47(4): 887-84.

Berger, S., 2015. Infectious diseases of Puerto Rico. Gideon E- book series. ISBN: 978-1-4988-0599-5.

Cantrell, S.A., Lodge D.J., Minter D.W., Ortiz S.B., 2006. Hongos de Puerto Rico. http://www.cybertruffle.org.uk/puerfung/index.htm [versión 1.00]

Corsaro,  D., Walochnik, J., Venditti, D., Steinmann, J., Dieter, Müller, K., Michel, R. 2014. Microsporidia-like parasites of amoebae belong to the early fungal lineage Rozelomycota. Parasitol. Res., 113(5):1909-1918.

Echevarría, L., 2017. Diversidad de hongos filamentosos en la arena de las playas en la Costa Norte Puerto Rico. Editorial Académica Española. ISBM 978-3-639-80661-8.

Echevarría, L., 2019. Preliminary  Study to identify Filamentous Fungi in Sands of Three Beaches of the Caribbean. PSM Microbiol., 4(1): 1-6.

Fernández, F., et al., 2013. Técnicas de tipificación molecular para la vigilancia y control de la infección. Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clinic., 3(1): 20-25.

Fincher, R.M., Fisher, J.F., Lovell, R.D., Newman, C.L., Espinel-Ingroff, A., Shadomy, H.J., 1991. Infection due to the fungus Acremonium (cephalosporium). Medicine Baltimore., 70(6): 398-409.

Gilgado, F, Cano, J, Gene, J, Guarro, J., 2005. Molecular phylogeny of the Pseudallescheria boydii species complex: proposal of two new species. J. Clin. Microbiol., 43(10): 4930-4942.

Gotelli, N.J., 2014. A taxonomic wich-list for community ecology: Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 359. 585-597. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1693344/pdf/15253346.pdf

Guarro, J, Gene, J, Stchigel, A., 1999. Developments in fungal taxonomy. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 12(3): 454-500.

Gugnani, C.H., 2000. Nondernatophytic filamentous Keratinophilic fungi and their role in human infection; Biology of dermatophytes and other Keratinophilic fungi. Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Bilbao.17:109-114.

Hamilos, D.L., 2010. Allergic fungal rhinitis and rhinosinusitis. Proc. Am. Thorac. Soc., 7(3): 245-252.

Jain, A., Jain, S., Rawat, S., 2010. Emerging fungal infections among children: A review on its clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and prevention. J. Pharm. Bioallied Sci., 2(4): 314–320.

Jury, M., Malmgren BA, Winter A., 2007. Subregional precipation climate of the carribean and relationships with ENSO and NAO. J. Geophysycal., 112.

Mendes, B., Urbano, P., Alves, C., Lapa, N., Norais, J., Nascimiento, N.J., Olivera J.F.S.,1997. Sanitary quality of ands from beaches of Azores islands, water. Sci. Technol., 35(11): 147-150.

Murgia, M., et al., 2018. Biodiversity of fungi in hot desert sands. Microbiol. Open., 8 (25).

Nazareth, S.W., Gonsalves, V., 2014. Halophilic Aspergillus penicillioides from athalassohaline, thalassohaline, and polyhaline environments. Microbiol., 5 :412.

Nestor, I., Costin, L., Sovrea, D., Ionescu, N., 1984. Detecction of enteroviruses in sea water and beach sand. Zentrabl Bakteriol mikrobiol Hyg B., 178(5-6): 527-534.

OMS. Guidelines for safe recreational water environments. 2003. [Internet] Coastal and freshwaters.1. ISBN 92 4 154580 1 http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/bathing/srwg1.pdf

Padial, J.M., Miralles, A., De la Riva, I., Vences, M., 2010. Review: The integrative future of taxonomy. Front. Zool., 7(1): 16.

Pereira, E., Figuerira, C., Aguiar N., et al., 2013. Microbiological and mycological beach sand quality in a volcanic environment: Madeira archipelago, Portugal. Sci Ttal Environ., 461-479.

Petrova, N.A.D., Antropova, A.B., Bilanenko, E.N., Mokeeva, V.L., Chekunova, L.N., Bulgakova, T.A., Zheltikova, T.M., 2011. Population dynamics of mites of the family pyroglyphidae and micromycetes in laboratory cultures. Entomol. Rev.,  91(3): 377–387. 

Promputtha, I., Hyde, K.H., Lumyong, P., McKenzie, EHC Lumyong, S., 2003. Dokmaia monthadangii gen. et sp. nov., a synnematous anamorphic fungus on Manglietia garrettii. Sydowia. 55(1): 99-103.

Sabino, R., Rodrigues, R., Costa., I., Carneiro, C., Cunha, M., Duarte, A., Faria, N., et al., 2014. Routine screening of harmful microorganisms in beach sands: Implications to public health. Sci. the Total Environ., 472: 1062-1069.

Sandoval, D.M., Gené, J., Sutton, D.A., Cano-Lira, J.F., de Hoog, G.S., Decock, C.A., Wiederhold, N.P., Guarro, J., 2016. Redefining Microascus, Scopulariopsis and allied genera. Persoonia. 36: 1-36.

Sugiura, Y., Hironaga, M., 2010. Arthrographis kalrae, a rare causal agent of onychomycosis, and its occurrence in natural and commercially available soils. Med. Mycol., 48(2): 384-9.

St- Germain, G., Summerbell, R., 2011. Identifying fungi: a clinical laboratory handbook. Belmont. 2nd ed.

Torres, A., Harbor, J., González, C., Torres, A., 2014. Impacts of urban development on presipitation in the tropical maritime climate on Puerto Rico. Climate., 2:47-77.

Varga, J., Frisvad, J.C., Kocsubé, S., Brankovics, B., Tóth, B., Szigeti, G., Samson, R.A., 2011. New and revisited species in Aspergillus section Nigri. Stud. Mycol.,  69(1): 1-17.

Vos, C.G., Murk, J., LAN Hartemink, K.J, Daniels, J.M.A., Paul, M.A, Debets Ossenkopp, Y.J., 2012. A rare pulmonary infection caused by Arthrographis kalrae. J. Med. Microbiol., 61: 593–595.

Webster, J., Weber, R.W.S. 2009. Introduction to fungi. 3rd ed. Cambridge University Press, New York. 3nd ed.ISBN-13 978-0-511-27783-2.