Inventory of Filamentous Fungi and Yeasts Found in the Sea Water and Sand of the Beach of Pier in Arecibo Puerto Rico

Author's: Lourdes Echevarría*
Authors' Affiliations
Biology Department, Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico 2250 Boulevard Luis A. Ferré Aguayo suite 570 Ponce, Puerto Rico 00717– 9997.
*CorrespondenceLourdes EchevarríaEmail:lourdes_echevarrí
Article Type: Research Article     Published: Mar. 08, 2022 Pages: 4-11
DOI:        Views 255       Downloads 0


In recent years, an increase in filamentous fungal and yeast infections has been observed. The water and sand of the beach were studied, for three weeks beginning in February, and culminating in march 2021. This study was conducted to determine the diversity of filamentous fungi and yeasts in the sea water and sand of the beach, to determine if they are pathogenic to human and to know the mycological quality of the sand. Samples were taken at three points equidistant from the water and the sand in sterile bags. The culture media were used: SDA, RBA, Hardy CHROM and CHROM agar. For sea water analysis, 100mL were filtered in triplicate and placed on each plate with the different culture media. For sand analysis, 1 gram was weighed in triplicate and spread on the plates with each culture medium. They were incubated for 7 to 14 days at 25°C. Colonies were counted and then isolated. Macroscopic and microscopic analysis was performed. The sea water analysis determined the presence of three genus: Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus sp. and Penicillium sp. Average yeast ranged from 21 CFU on CHROMagar and 12 CFU on HardyCHROM. The yeast species identified were Candida albicans and C. tropicalis. The average of filamentous fungi was 12 CFU in RBA and 15 CFU in SDA. The fungal species identified in the water were A. ochraceus, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. niger, A. versicolor P. citrinum, P. chrysogenum, R. oligosporus and R. stolonifer. Two genus were identified in the sand: Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. The genus Aspergillus was the one with the highest identification. Yeast average was: 19 CFU on CHROM agar, 20 CFU on Hardy CHROM. The two yeasts identified were: C. albicans and C. tropicalis. The average of filamentous fungi in each culture medium was 30 CFU in RBA and 38 CFU in SDA. The filamentous fungi species identified in the sand were A. terreus, A. versicolor, A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, A. fumigatus, P. monoverticillate and A. aculeatus. The quality of the sand was classified as average. There is a connection between filamentous fungi and yeasts identified in sea water and sand with clinical samples. Most of the fungi identified are human pathogens causing infections in different parts of your body.



Filamentous fungi,


Sea water.

Authors’ Contribution

LE designed; wrote and revised the paper.

How to cite

Echevarría, L., 2022. Inventory of Filamentous Fungi and Yeasts Found in the Sea Water and Sand of the Beach of Pier in Arecibo Puerto Rico. PSM Microbiol., 7(1): 4-11.


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