Effect of Post-emergence Herbicides to Control Broad-leaved Weeds in Wheat under Rainfed Conditions
Author's: Muhammad Asad, Muhammad Naeem Iqbal, Asfa Ashraf, Zahid Mahmood, Adnan Arshad, Umair Raza, Muhammad Kashif
Corresponding Author: Muhammad Asad
Corresponding Author Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Article Type: Mini-Review
Published Online: May. 05, 2016
Weeds have an essential economic impact on crops. By competing for resources such as nutrients, water and light, wheat yield decreased approximately ten percent each year. Deprived of weed control, crop yields can be expressively a bridged. Commonly shown that weeds show slow harvest and increase combine repair costs. Some herbicides afford excellent control on broadleaf weed with small or no damage of wheat. Injury varies with variety, growth stage and herbicide. Until on the basis of sensitivity of herbicide there is no any type of research has been conducted on many of the varieties planted. Exclusively this review inspects the field problems of weeds from the chemical point of view. Buctril Super 60EC, Lihua, Ally max and Wheat Star have been studied in populations of herbicide selection and have therefore been selected as vital for this review. A lot of herbicides suggested to control of broadleaf weeds in wheat are Affinity Broad Spec (tribenuron + thifen sulfuron), Buctril super 60 % EC, Logoran Extra, Starane-M, Agility SG (Metsulfuron dicamba + Tribenuron + Thifensulfuron), Ally XP (metsulfuron), 2,4-D, Banvel (dicamba), Bristle 69 EW, Amber (triasulfuron), Curtail (2,4-D + clopyralid), Harmony Puma super 69EW, Topik 15WP, Safener15WP, Certain 80WD and Tremor 24EC. On the basis of exceptional control of broadleaf weeds estimated Bromoxynil, Pyrasulfotoleis and another tool to control ALS-inhibitor resistant weeds. Current studies were started to find out the most effective and economical herbicide and their rates to control broad leaved weeds in wheat.
Broad-leaved weeds, Post-Emergence Herbicides, Rainfed.
To cite this article:
Asad, M., Iqbal, M.N., Ashraf, A., Mahmood, Z., Arshad, A., Raza, U., Kashif, M., 2016. Effect of Post-emergence Herbicides to Control Broad-leaved Weeds in Wheat Under Rainfed Conditions. PSM Biol. Res., 01(1): 16-21.
Because of comparable morphology and growth pattern, monocot weeds offer more serious rivalry. There are numerous variables for this decrease, for example, inappropriate seed rate and sowing techniques, late sowing, lacking plant populace, deficit soils with nutrient and irrigational water unavailable at basic phases of crop yield, weed rivalry bringing about the diminishment in the yield of wheat (Guttieri et al., 2001). Depending on intensity of weeds reduction in crop yield from 9.5 to 16.05 percent occur (Jalis and Muhammad 1980). Commonly weeds represent expensive and limiting factors in crop production, posing threshing and harvesting problems (Noorka et al., 2013). One of the most critical problems is weed in crops because they contest with crop plants for moisture, light, space and nutrients (Khan et al., 2001).
To achieve the food demand in the world, As compared to other food crops wheat grades best consumed and grown in many countries of the world (Noorka et al., 2013). Wheat is the important food grain of Pakistan and being the essential regimen and inhabits a dominant spot in agricultural programs. Contribution of wheat is about 2.2 % to GDP and its value for value added is 10.3 % in agriculture. Area of wheat sowing increased more than 4.4 % as compared to last year i.e. 8660 to 9039 thousand hectares. Against the target (FCA) received during 2013-14 which was 25 million tons i.e. wheat production stood at 25.3 million tons during 2013-14, which is 1.2% extra than the required limit, compared to last year’s production an encouraging growth of 4.4 percent witnessed over production of 24.2 million tons. Generally rise in area sown is ascribed to the striking rates of market and available area because of early maturity of crop. Increase in production is because of increase in cultivated area and rainfall at steady pauses and favorable meteorological conditions appropriate for wheat grains (Anonymous, 2014).
In spite of the use of amended cultural practices and expensive inputs, decrease in average production occurs in wheat. There are many motives for this decrease in yield, among them one of the less noticeable and utmost serious, is weed competition. Weeds contest with other crop plants for light, moisture, nutrients, space, and other growth aspects, which not only decrease yield but also worsen of farm produce quality and thus decrease its marketplace value (Qureshi et al., 2002). The escalation in the straw yield as a result of application of water extracts may be the effect of well weed control or result of allelopathic chemicals present in the allelopathic crop water extracts applied or because of availability of nutrients existing in soil, when weed infestation reduced in the plots where weed control treatments application occur, weed wheat competition for the resources ultimately decreases which cause better growth of crop plants and result in an increase in crop yield components. These results verified the observations of (Reeves, 2006) that weeds infestation decreased dry matter production in wheat. Similarly (Anwar et al., 2003) and (Marwat et al., 2005) reported the crop water extracts influenced the wheat yield components.
Weeds are one of the major factors which harmfully affect the wheat crop yield. Competition occurs between them for growth, nutrients, light, moisture and many others. They decrease yields, lesser the superiority of the crop and raise the rate of harvesting, cleaning and threshing (Abbas et al., 2009). Therefore weed control is significant constituent of managing performs that was used to escalation crop growth. Possession in interpretation the influence of aggressive weeds on atmosphere, article 8(h) of the Agreement on Biological Diversity (CBD) contracted by 161 countries at the Earth Summit in 1992 which impulses the revelries to “avert the overview of or eliminate those unfamiliar species which impend ecology, environment or species” (Hussain et al., 2000) and Pakistan being a member of CBD, has to play its part sensibly.
Abbas, G., Ali. M., Abbas. A., Aslam. Z., Akram. M., 2009. Impact of Different Herbicides on Broadleaf Weeds and Yield of Wheat. Pak. Jou. of Weed Sc. Res., 15: 1-10.
Albrecht, H., Mattheis. A., 1998. The effects of organic and integrated farmin gonrare arable weed sonthe for schungsver bund Agrar-okosysteme Munchen (FAM) research station in southern Bavaria. Biol. Cons., 86: 347–356.
Anonymous., 2014. Pakistan Economic survey 2014-15. Ministry of finance, government of Pakistan. 22p. (Assessed at http://www.finance.gov.pk/survey_1213.html on 25).
Anwar, F., Bhanger I.M., Kazi. G.T., 2003. Relationships of rancimat and AOM values at
Balancing People, Planet, Profit: 14th Australian Weeds Conference Proceedings, Sindel, B.M. and S.B. Johnson (Eds.). Weed Society of New South Wales, Australia, pp: 558-561.
Boutin, C., Strandberg. B., Carpenter. D., Mathiassen. K.S., Thomas. J.P., 2014. Herbicide impact on non-target plant reproduction: What are the toxicological and ecological implications? Environ. Pollu., 185: 295-306.
Carpio, C., Sydorovych. O., Marra. M., 2007. Relative importance of environmental attributes using logistic regression. Southern agricultural economics association annual meeting, February 4-7, 2007, mobile, Alabama 34846.
Crone, E.E., Marler. M., Pearson. E.D., 2009. No-target effects of broad leaf herbicide on a native perennial for b: a demographic frame work for assessing and minimizing impacts. J. Appl. Ecol. 46,673–682.
Golan, E., Kuchler. F., Mitchell. L., 2000. Economics of Food Labeling. Agricultural Economics Report No 793. Economic Research Service, USDA.
Guttieri, M.J., Jeffrey. C., Brien. O., Souza. K.S., 2001. Relative Sensitivity of Spring Wheat Grain Yield and Quality Parameters to Moisture Deficit. Crop Sci., 41: 327-335. http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci 2001. 412327 x.
Heap. I., 2007. The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. http://www.weedscie nce.com
Holm, G., Plucknett. D., Pancho.J., Herberger. J., 1977. The World’s worst weeds: Distribution and biology.
Hurst, L.D., 1994. Cytoplasmic Genetics under Inbreeding and Outbreeding. Proceedings: Bio Sci., 258: 287-298.
Hussain, F., Murad. A., Durrani. J.M., 2004. Weed communities in the wheat fields of Mastuj, District Chitral, Pakistan. Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res., 10: 101-108.
Hussain, S.S., Khatoon. S., Mahmood. R., 2000. Report on Alien Invasive Species of Pakistan. Collaborative Study of IUCN Pakistan, CABI Rawalpindi and Botany department, Karachi University, Karachi.
Jalis, A., Muhammad. K., 1980. Post-emergence trial on Wheat. Annual abridge research report (1979-1980), Plant physiology section, Ayub agricultural research institute, Faisalabad.
Khalil, M.F., Hassan. G., Ahmad. G., Shah. H.N., 2008. Individual and combined effect of different herbicides on weed control in wheat. Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res., 14: 131-139.
Khan, 1., Hassan. G., Marwat. B.K., 2002. Efficacy of different herbicides for controlling weeds in wheat crop-II. Weed dynamics and herbicides. Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res., 8: 41-47.
Khan, I., Muhammad, Z., Hassan. G., Marwat, K.B., 2001. Efficacy of different herbicides for controlling weeds in wheat crop-1.response of agronomic and morphological traits in variety Gaznavi-98. Scientif. Khyb., 14: 51- 57.
Marwat, K.B., Saeed. M., Hussain. Z., Gul. B., 2005. Chemical weed management in wheat in rainfed areas-I. Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res. 11: 31-36.
Noorka, I.R and Shahid. A.S., 2013. Use of Conservation Tillage System in Semiarid Region to Ensure Wheat Food Security in Pakistan. Development in Soil Salinity.
Noorka, I.R., Batool. A.,, AlSultan. S., Tabasum. S., Ali. A., 2013. Water stress tolerance, its relationship to assimilate partitioning and potence ratio in spring wheat. Amer. Jour. of Plant Sci., 4: 231-237.
Qureshi, M.A., Jarwar. S.A., Tunio. D.S., Majeedano, I.H., 2002 Efficacy of various weed management practices in wheat. Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res., 8: 63-69.
Reeves, T., 2006. Design research from a technology perspective. In J. V. D. Akker, K. Gravemeijer, S. McKenney & N. Nieveen (Eds.), Educational design research (pp: 52–66). New York: Routledge.
Singh, S.P., Pandey. P., Kumar. M., Singh. S., Pandey. S.N., Srivastva. D., 2013. Growth and biochemical responses of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to different Herbicides. Afri. Jour. of Agri. Res., 8: 1265- 1269.
Storkey, J., Meyer. S., Still. S.K., Leuschner. C., 2012. The impact of agriculture in tensiﬁcation and land-use change on the European arable ﬂora. varying temperatures for several oils and fats. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 80: 151-155.
Sydorovych, O., Marra. M., 2007. A Genetically engineered crop’s impact on pesticide use: A revealed-preference index approach. Jour. of Agri. and Res. Eco: 32: 476-491.
Sydorovych, O., Marra. M., 2008. Valuing the changes in herbicide risks resulting from adoption of roundup ready Soybeans by U.S. farmers: A revealed-preference approach. Jour. of Agri. and Appli. Econ. 40: 777-787.
Tatarkova, V., Hiller. E., Vaculı. M., 2013. Impact of wheat straw biochar addition to soil on the sorption, leaching, dissipation of the herbicide (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy) acetic acid and the growth of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L). Ecotoxic. and Envir. Safety., 92: 215–221.
Zimdahl, R., 1999. Fundamentals of Weed Science. Academic Press, San Diego, USA.
Get Article Updates