Bidens aurea (Asteraceae), a new record to the Flora of Yemen

Author's: Hassan M. Ibrahim1*, Fatima A. Alhadi1, Amal A. Murshed2, Abdul Nasser A. Al-Gifri3
Authors' Affiliations
1Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Sana'a University, P.O. Box 12231, Sana'a, Yemen.2Vocational Agri. Institute, Ministry of Technical Education & Vocational Training, Sana'a, Republic of Yemen.3Biology Department, Faculty of Education, Aden University, P.O. Box 6312, Khor Makssar, Aden, Yemen.*CorrespondenceHassan M.
Article Type: Research Article     Published: Nov. 15, 2021 Pages: 1-13
DOI:        Views 542       Downloads 0


A field survey was conducted on the genus Bidens L. in Sana’a city during the period April to September 2019. A total of four Bidens taxa were collected from different locations in Sana’a city. Three of them were matched with the three recorded Bidens species in Yemen flora (B. bipinnata, B. bi­ternata, and B. pilosa). However, the fourth collected Bidens taxon was considered to be a new record to the flora of Yemen, namely Bidens aurea (Aiton) Sherff. A morphological diagnostic was carried to illustrate the morphological characters of the new record Bidens taxon. Based on 42 morphological leaf characters (26 qualitative and 16 quantitative), a comparison study and static analysis (UPGMA) were made to demonstrate the taxonomical relationship between the new recorded Bidens taxon and the closely related Bidens spp. cited in the flora of Yemen. The new recorded Bidens taxon showed a similarity to the closely related Bidens taxa mentioned in the flora of Yemen in 9 qualitative leaf morphological characters. However, twenty leaf morphological (11 qualitative and 9 quantitative) characters showed an important taxonomic value in differentiating between B. aurea and the other three Bidens species recorded in the flora of Yemen.


New record,

Flora of Yemen,

B. aurea,

B. bipinnata,


B. biternata,


Authors’ Contribution

HMI and ANA conceived and designed the study. HMI and AAM performed the experiments. HMI and FAA analyzed data, wrote and revised the paper.

How to cite

Ibrahim, M.H., Alhadi, F.A., Murshed, A.A., Al-Gifri, A.N.A., 2022. Bidens aurea (Asteraceae), a new record to the Flora of Yemen. PSM Biol. Res., 7(1): 1-13.


The genus Bidens L. is one of the largest genera in the family Asteraceae, subfamily Asteroideae and tribe Heliantheae Cassini (Takhtajan, 2009; Chen and Hind, 2011).

Based on Sherff (1932; 1937); Sell and Murell, (2005) and Chen and Hind (2011)   the genus Bidens consists of 208 to 250 species classified into 14 sections (Campylotheca, Degeneria, Neurophyllum, Clomtonial, Greenmania, Selvorngea, Fulsotsia, Heterodonta, Meduseae, Platycarpaea, Psilocarpaea, Steppia,  Lesperthema and Ebussa) and widespread as native or naturalized, especially in subtropical, tropical, warm-temperate, North and South America (Chen and Hind, 2011; Bogosavljević  and Zlatković, 2015).

The section Psilocarpaea is the largest section in the genus Bidens L., itincludes more than half of Bidens species (about 114 species), Psilocarpaea taxa are very diverse in appearance, annual, to perennial; grasses or bushes, having simple and toothed to pinnatifid leaves. Capitula solitary, pedunculate, Flowers; radiate and discoid or discoid only. Achenes are more or less linear, flat, or tetragonal at the apex, muticus, or awned (Sherff, 1932; 1937).

Bidens aurea (Aiton) Sherff serves as the type of Psilocarpaea section, it is a central American species and introduced elsewhere, in recent years it became naturalized in southwest Europe (Sherff, 1932; 1937; Abdein and Al-Said, 2000; De Santayana et al., 2005). Moreover, Bidens aurea was recorded in Arabia in Asir Mountains (Saudi Arabia), as a cultivated herb and often used as a tea substitute (Abdein and Al-Said, 2000). In 1997, J. R. I. Wood made several collections from the northern part of Yemen and he published his notes in “A handbook of the Yemen Flora” which remained the only flora of Yemen until 2013 where Al Khulaidi made a checklist on plants grown in Yemen (Flora of Yemen). Where he documented all the plants which were mentioned in previous floristic literature on Yemen.

A total of 2838 plant species including naturalized  cultivated and alien plants have been reported from various habitats in Yemen (Al Khulaidi, 2013), only three spe­cies of Bidens, belong to the section Psilocarpaea, namely B. bipinnata L., B. biternata (Lour.) Merr and B. pilosa L. were recorded in the flora of Yemen in general and in the flora of Sana’a city in particular (Dubie et al., 1993; Dubie, 1995; Wood, 1997; Al Khulaidi, 2013; Ibrahim et al.,2020). 

During fieldwork, some naturalized peculiar populations of Bidens L. taxa were detected in Sana’a city. A primary taxonomical study was done to identify the observed Bidens taxa by comparing them with herbarium specimens mounted in the Herbarium of the Faculty of Science, Biology Department, Sana’a University. The investigation resulted that four Bidens taxa were grown in Sana’a city, three of the collected Bidens taxa specimens were similar to Bidens bipinnata L., B. biternata (Lour.) Merr and B. pilosa L. with few morphological differences. After examining the morphological characters of the fourth collected Bidens taxon specimens carefully, and utilizing the available taxonomical and floristic literature, they were identified to be a new record for the genus Bidens, namely B. aurea (Aiton) Sherff. The present paper updates the information about the Bidens L. taxa grown in Yemen, new Bidens L. species to the flora of Yemen was reported, and a complete morphological description of the newly recorded species will be provided. Moreover, based on morphological leaf characters a comparison study and static analysis will be made to demonstrate the taxonomical relationship between the new recorded Bidens taxon and the closely related Bidens spp. recorded in the flora of Yemen.


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