Beach Sand and Sea Water as Reservoir of Potentially Pathogenic Microbes

Author's: Asfa Ashraf1,2*, Muhammad Naeem Iqbal2
Authors' Affiliations
1The School of Life Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350117, China.2Pakistan Science Mission (PSM), Narowal (Noor Kot 51770), Pakistan.
*CorrespondenceAsfa Ashraf, PSM Editorial Office, Narowal (Noor Kot 51770),
Article Type: Perspective     Published: Mar. 31, 2022 Pages: 37-39
DOI:        Views 361       Downloads 0


The quality of beach sand and sea water is critical to public health and tourism. The main sources of contamination for the coastal water and the beach sand are sewage effluents, rivers, agricultural runoff, and urban runoff, surface run-off after heavy rainfall, bird droppings and recreational activities. Several potentially pathogenic microorganisms are introduced into seawater and beach sand that are not normally found in a marine environment. Pathogen identification and quantification is time-consuming and difficult because pathogens occur in beach sands and natural waters infrequently and at low quantities. In this issue, Echevarría (2022) reports the incidence of several species of pathogenic filamentous fungi and yeast in beach sand and sea water on  the  beach  at  the  pier  in the  town  of  Arecibo,  P.R. Monitoring initiatives must be carried out in particular in metropolitan areas and near beaches. This might improve microbiological quality of beach sand and sea water, as well as beachgoer safety and the tourism appeal to foreign tourists.


Beach sand,

Sea water,

Filamentous fungi,


Pathogenic microbes.

How to cite

Ashraf, A., Iqbal, M.N., 2022. Beach Sand and Sea Water as Reservoir of Potentially Pathogenic Microbes. PSM Microbiol., 7(1): 37-39.