Banknotes as a Possible Vehicle for the Transmission of Human Pathogens

Author's: Muhammad Naeem Iqbal1,2*, Asfa Ashraf2,3
Authors' Affiliations
1The School of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China.2Pakistan Science Mission (PSM), Narowal (Noor Kot 51770), Pakistan.3The School of Life Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350117, China.*Corresponding Author: Muhammad Naeem Iqbal, PSM Editorial Office, Pakistan Science Mission (PSM), Narowal (Noor Kot 51770), Pakistan.
Article Type: Perspective     Published: Dec. 31, 2020 Pages: Online first
DOI:        Views 498       Downloads 0


Banknotes contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms either due to inappropriate handling or subsequent recontamination may become a contaminated inanimate surface with the possibility to transfer pathogens. Currency provides a good atmosphere for the growth of the microorganisms and works as a reservoir. Contamination may play an important role in the transmission of infection especially during outbreaks of infectious diseases. In this issue, Esmail et al. (2020) report a high level of bacterial and fungal contamination of all the banknote samples. The isolation of a huge number of pathogenic microorganisms from the circulating currency is alarming. In the future, more research should be conducted in the area of the adherence of microorganisms onto banknotes and study the infectivity of microorganisms after being adhered onto banknotes for certain periods of time. Another important future focus is using materials with antimicrobial activity for banknotes in order to enhance their antimicrobial properties without adding antimicrobial agents onto banknotes which can have possible harmful or toxic effects.


Banknotes contamination, infections, bacteria, fungi, human pathogens.


Iqbal, M.N., Ashraf, A., 2020. Banknotes as a Possible Vehicle for the Transmission of Human Pathogens. PSM Microbiol., 5(4): MB-2020-069.