Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns among Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Clinical Specimens in Sheikh Zaid Hospital, Lahore

Author's: Mehwish Saleem1*, Ayesha Majeed2, Iqra Iqbal3
Authors' Affiliations
1Microbiology Laboratory, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore Pakistan.2Department of Zoology, Govt. Post-Graduate Islamia College (W) Cooper Road, Lahore54000, Pakistan.3Department of Zoology, Government College Women University Sialkot, Pakistan.*Corresponding Author: Mehwish Saleem;Email:
Article Type: Research Article     Published: Apr. 30, 2020 Pages: 1-5
DOI:        Views 741       Downloads 0


This retrospective study was conducted to determine antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens among patients suffering from Urinary Tract Infections (UTI’s) at the Pathology laboratory, Sheikh Zaid Hospital, Lahore. A total of 50 samples were collected from the different sources which include pus (n=24), followed by blood (n=14), and urine (n=12). Isolation and characterization of bacterial strains was done by conventional cultural, and biochemical methods for microbial enumeration. Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates against penicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, augmentin, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem was tested by the disk diffusion method. The results revealed a higher prevalence of UTI’s among females (71%) than males (36%). Prevalence of bacterial isolates was Enterococcus faecalis (42%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (40%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (18%). Among the six antibiotics tested, bacterial isolates were more resistant to Penicillin; with S.pneumoniae (100%), E.faecalis (98%), and S.aureus (85%). The majority of the bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin that is mostly prescribed antibiotic and illustrated that more consumption of a specific antibiotic leads to the sustainability of resistance against those antibiotics.


Urinary tract infections, bacterial pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility, penicillin.


Saleem, M., Majeed, A., Iqbal, I., 2020. Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns among Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Clinical Specimens in Sheikh Zaid Hospital, Lahore. Int. J. Mol. Microbiol., 3(1): 1-5.


Ahmad, B., Kudi, M., 2003. Chronic suppurative otitis media in Gombe, Nigeria. Nigerian J. Surg. Res., 5(3): 120-123.

Ali, S. et al., 2016. Identification, characterization and antibiotic sensitivity of aeromonas hydrophila, a causative agent of epizootic ulcerative syndrome in wild and farmed fish from potohar, Pakistan. Pakistan J. Zool, 48(3): 899-901.

Ashraf, A., 2014. Isolation and identification of antibiotic resistant bacteria from patients suffering from urinary tract infections, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore.

Aziz, Q., Izhar, M., Ali, Z., Shah, V.H., 2012. Antimicrobial resistance; comparison of Escherichia coli in different areas of Lahore. Professional Med. J.-Q., 19(3): 276-280.

Bano, K. et al., 2012. Patterns of antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial pathogens among urinary tract infections (UTI) patients in a Pakistani population. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res., 6(2): 414-20.

Bergey, D.H., Holt, J.G., 1994. Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology.

Börjesson, S. et al., 2016. Limited Dissemination of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase- and Plasmid-Encoded AmpC-Producing Escherichia coli from Food and Farm Animals, Sweden. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 22(4): 634-40.

Butler, C.C. et al., 2006. Antibiotic-resistant infections in primary care are symptomatic for longer and increase workload: outcomes for patients with E. coli UTIs. Br. J. Gen. Pract., 56(530): 686-92.

Chakraborty, S., Mahapatra, S., Roy, M., 2011. Isolation and Identification of Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Post Operative Pus Sample. Al Ameen J. Med. Sci., 4.

CLSI, 2016. Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.

Fair, R.J., Tor, Y., 2014. Antibiotics and bacterial resistance in the 21st century. Perspect. Medicin. Chem., 6: 25-64.

Francis, J.S. et al., 2005. Severe community-onset pneumonia in healthy adults caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying the Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes. Clin. Infect. Dis., 40(1): 100-107.

Groth, A. et al., 2012. Acute mastoiditis in children aged 0-16 years–a national study of 678 cases in Sweden comparing different age groups. Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol., 76(10): 1494-500.

Hussain, F. et al., 2016. Antibacterial Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Datura inoxia. PSM Microbiol., 1(1): 33-35.

Iqbal, I., Ashraf, A., Iqbal, A., 2019. Plant Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobials: Present Status and Future Perspectives. PSM Microbiol., 4(3): 71-74.

Iqbal, M.N. et al., 2016. Microbiological Risk Assessment of Packed Fruit Juices and Antibacterial Activity of Preservatives Against Bacterial Isolates.

Iqbal, M.N. et al., 2015. Assessment of Microbial Load of Un-pasteurized Fruit Juices and in vitro Antibacterial Potential of Honey Against Bacterial Isolates. Open Microbiol. J., 9: 26-32.

Iqbal, M.N., Ashraf, A., 2018. Ceftazidime Resistant Bacteria in Clinical Samples: Do We Need New Antibiotics? Int. J. Molec. Microbiol., 1(2): 58-59.

Iqbal, M.N., Ashraf, A., 2019. Withania somnifera: Can it be a Therapeutic Alternative for Microbial Diseases in an Era of Progressive Antibiotic Resistance? Int. J. Nanotechnol. Allied Sci., 3(1): 16-18.

Khan, G.A., Berglund, B., Khan, K.M., Lindgren, P.-E., Fick, J., 2013. Occurrence and Abundance of Antibiotics and Resistance Genes in Rivers, Canal and near Drug Formulation Facilities – A Study in Pakistan. PLOS ONE., 8(6): e62712.

Kiffer, C.R., Mendes, C., Oplustil, C.P., Sampaio, J.L., 2007. Antibiotic resistance and trend of urinary pathogens in general outpatients from a major urban city. Int. Braz. J. Urol., 33(1): 42-8; discussion 49.

Li, B., Webster, T.J., 2018. Bacteria antibiotic resistance: New challenges and opportunities for implant-associated orthopedic infections. J. Orthop. Res., 36(1): 22-32.

Mahony, J., McAuliffe, O., Ross, R.P., van Sinderen, D., 2011. Bacteriophages as biocontrol agents of food pathogens. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol., 22(2): 157-63.

Marra, A.R. et al., 2011. Nosocomial bloodstream infections in Brazilian hospitals: analysis of 2,563 cases from a prospective nationwide surveillance study. J. Clin. Microbiol., 49(5): 1866-1871.

Martone, W.J., 1998. Spread of vancomycin-resistant enterococci: why did it happen in the United States? Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol., 19(8): 539-45.

Morais-Braga, M.F. et al., 2012. Antimicrobial and modulatory activity of ethanol extract of the leaves from Lygodium venustum SW. Am. Fern. J., 102(2): 154-160.

Mori, R., Lakhanpaul, M., Verrier-Jones, K., 2007. Diagnosis and management of urinary tract infection in children: summary of NICE guidance. Bmj., 335(7616): 395-7.

Mouffouk, C., Mouffouk, S., Dekkiche, S., Hambaba, L., Mouffouk, S., 2019. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of the species Silene inflata Sm.: Biological activities of S. inflata. PSM Biol. Res., 4(2): 74-86.

O’Connell, K.M. et al., 2013. Combating multidrug-resistant bacteria: current strategies for the discovery of novel antibacterials. Angew Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 52(41): 10706-33.

Olowe, O., Oladipo, G., Makanjuola, O., Olaitan, J., 2012. Prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (esbls) carrying genes in Klebsiella spp from clinical samples at ile-ife, south western Nigeria. Int. J. Pharma Med. Biol. Sci., 1(2): 129-138.

Saleem, M., Batool, A., Iqbal, M.N., Ashraf, A., 2018a. Characterization of Ceftazidime Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Bacteria in Lahore, Pakistan. Int. J. Molec. Microbiol., 1(2): 44-50.

Saleem, M., Latif, A., Ashraf, A., Iqbal, M.N., 2018b. Characterization of Carbapenem Resistance in Bacteria Isolated from Clinical Samples in Lahore, Pakistan. Int. J. Nanotechnol. Allied Sci., 2(2): 22-27.

Sewify, M. et al., 2016. Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection and Antimicrobial Susceptibility among Diabetic Patients with Controlled and Uncontrolled Glycemia in Kuwait. J. Diabetes Res., 2016: 6573215-6573215.

Shahzad, M.I., Ashraf, H., Iqbal, M.N., Khanum, A., 2017. Medicinal Evaluation of Common Plants against Mouth Microflora. PSM Microbiol., 2(2): 34-40.

Shawish, R.R., El-Bagory, A.-R.M., Elnahriry, S.S., Wafy, H.A., Sayed, H.H., 2020. Incidence of Antibiotic Resistant Coliforms in Poultry Meat in Menoufia Governorate, Egypt. PSM Microbiol., 5(1): 7-13.

Shittu, S., Mandere, M., 1999. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal patients in AU TH Zaria. Tropic. J. Obstetrics and Gynaecol., 16: 14-41.

Soderblom, T. et al., 2010. Alarming spread of vancomycin resistant enterococci in Sweden since 2007. Euro. Surveill., 15(29).

Tankhiwale, S.S., Jalgaonkar, S.V., Ahamad, S., Hassani, U., 2004. Evaluation of extended spectrum beta lactamase in urinary isolates. Ind. J. Med. Res., 120(6): 553-6.

Utsui, Y., Yokota, T., 1985. Role of an altered penicillin-binding protein in methicillin-and cephem-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicr. Agents Chemother., 28(3): 397-403.

Yunus, F.-u.-N. et al., 2016. Isolation and Screening of Antibiotic producing Bacteria from Soil in Lahore City. PSM Microbiol., 1(1): 1-4.

Zetola, N., Francis, J.S., Nuermberger, E.L., Bishai, W.R., 2005. Community-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an emerging threat. Lancet Infect. Dis., 5(5): 275-86.