A Review of Mycotoxins Produced by Fruit Spoilage Fungi

Author's: Muhammad Naeem Iqbal1,2*, Iqra Iqbal2,3, Fakhar-un-Nisa Yunus4, Ali Muhammad5, Mirza Imran Shahzad6
Authors' Affiliations
1The School of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China.2Pakistan Science Mission (PSM), Narowal (Noor Kot 51770), Pakistan.3Department of Zoology, Government College Women University Sialkot, Pakistan.4Department of Zoology, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan.5Department of Zoology, University of Poonch, Rawalakot 12350, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.6University College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan.*CorrespondenceMuhammad Naeem IqbalEmail:driqbalnaeem@hotmail.com
Article Type: Mini-Review     Published: Apr. 30, 2021 Pages: 46-49
DOI:        Views 505       Downloads 0


Fungi invade commodities extensively consumed by humans and animals and produce as secondary metabolites, low molecular weight compounds known as mycotoxins. The proliferation of various fungi in fruits leads to reduction in yield and quality with significant economic losses. Although the most important mycotoxins produced by the fruit spoilage fungi are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, and the Alternaria toxins alternariol, alternariol methyl ether, and altenuene, the type, and level of mycotoxins vary by fruit type and geographic location. The increased concern about fruit safety has led to increased studies throughout the world and enhanced awareness for strict regulations governing mycotoxin limits in food.  This review aims to explore the mycotoxins produced by fruit spoilage fungi and different factors that affect mycotoxin production and their control methods.


Fungi, Secondary metabolites, Mycotoxins, Aflatoxins, Ochratoxins, Patulin, Fruit spoilage.

How to cite

Iqbal, M.N., Iqbal, I., Yunus, F.N., Muhammad, A., Shahzad, M.I., 2021. A Review of Mycotoxins Produced by Fruit Spoilage Fungi. PSM Biol. Res., 6(2): 46-49.