A Comprehensive Review of Biogas Sector for Electric Power Generation in Pakistan
This review study is directed towards the establishment of commercial biogas sector for electric power generation in Pakistan. Pakistan is facing severe electric power crisis because of huge mismatch between supply and demand of electric power generation. Major issues lies at generation side as a consequence of poor infrastructure, depleting nature of conventional fuel resources. Keeping in view the Pakistan’s agriculture base and environmental concerns we focus on biogas sector for electric power generation. The marked increase of 3.7% is observed in livestock sector of Pakistan according to economic survey of Pakistan 2012-2013. The aforementioned increase of livestock sector results in 1140 million dung production. Therefore, due to environmental concerns and energy crisis of Pakistan we need to utilize all waste and manure from livestock sector in an efficient way. The transformation process of manure and waste in to methane gas is called Biogas .This methane gas can be utilized as a fuel for domestic and industrial purpose. Therefore, biogas will act as an alternative, sustainable and renewable energy resource. We focus on KPK province for visiting the installed biogas plants and then further analysis the data provided by PCRET (Pakistan Council of Renewable energies technologies) for whole country. The aforementioned analysis clearly illustrated that there is a pronounced potential for commercial biogas sector for mitigating energy crisis in Pakistan.
Greenhouse gas, Carbon dioxide, Pakistan Council of Renewable Energies Technologies, Energy crises, Biogas, Live Stock.
To cite this article:
Shaukat, N., Khan, B., Khan, T., Younis, M.N., Faris, N., Javed, A., Iqbal, M.N., 2016. A Comprehensive Review of Biogas Sector for Electric Power Generation in Pakistan. PSM Biol. Res., 01(1): 43-48.
Pakistan’s energy crisis is growing to the rate of 13% annually. Where the energy requirement is estimated to reach 179 Million TOEs (Tonne of Oil Equivalent) by year 2020, currently it is 79 Million TOEs, which was 57.9 Million TOEs in 2006.The Country is facing a severe electricity shortfall of 8500 Mega Watt, which results in load shedding of 8-21 hours during summers. This shortfall leads to under production in industries, which in turns badly affects the export and economy (Ministry of Planning, Development and Reforms Pakistan, 2015: Pakistan Economic Survey 2012-13). This energy crisis is due to mismatch between supply and demand of energy. The major issue lies at supply side, for which we need to explore more alternatives in order to mitigate the energy crisis. There is a lot of potential for renewable energy resources in Pakistan like solar, wind, biomass, and coal due to its geographical location. Besides the availability of these renewable energies, the short fall of conventional sources is also an indication for us all to explore more alternate and renewable energy resources, in order to revive the economic growth (Ministry of Planning, Development and Reforms Pakistan, 2015: Pakistan Economic Survey 2012-13).
Renewable energy technologies include solar, wind, biomass etc. Among all these renewable energies we will mainly focus on biogas in this study. The agricultural sector in Pakistan acts like the backbone in economic growth, contributing over 22% to GDP (Pakistan Economic Survey 2012-13). The livestock sector also shows a marked increase of 3.7%, according to economic survey of Pakistan 2012-2013 and contributes 56% to the agricultural sector and 12% to GDP (Pakistan Economic Survey 2012-13). The country having 72 Millions of livestock animals, producing over 1140 Million TOEs dung and urine of 338 Million TOEs (Pakistan Economic Survey 2012-13). So there is a potential for establishing a commercial biogas sector, where the biogas generating capacity is estimated to be 8.85×1010 m3 from 1287 Million TOEs cattle dung. The equivalent heat amount of this is 1.8×1012 Millions Joules. This also leads to a production of 350 Million TOEs manure (Mittal, 1996) which may be used as fertilizers. The currently installed biogas plants, however, mainly used for domestic purposes (Ilyas, 2006). In this study our main objective was to review the installed biogas plants across Pakistan and to analyse their socio-economic and environmental impact.
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