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Accepted Articles Volume 2 Issue 3 September 2017

1. Osteoarthritis Treatment: An In-depth Review of Conventional and Nonconventional Interventions for Symptomatic Relief and Novel Disease Modifying Modalities


Received: 22.Mar.2017; Accepted: 10.June.2017; Abstract Published Online: 21.June.2017
*Corresponding author: Mubashar Rehman; Email:



Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by degradation of joint cartilage which produces severe pain and swelling leading to immobility of the joint. OA can affect people of all age, gender, and geographical locations, and the cost associated with the long-term medication, hospitalization and the loss of daily work hours stigmatizes the patient’s life. Conventionally, the treatment of OA is done with pain killers but due to notorious side effects profile of NSAIDs and corticosteroids, dependence phenomenon with opioids and continuous underlying degradation of joint, the analgesics cannot be relied upon as sole therapeutic agent. Physical therapies, exercise, modification of lifestyle and use of supportive devices have shown effectiveness in prevention and treatment of mild OA. With the application of multidisciplinary approaches in medical research, many pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have evolved with optimistic claims of relieving joint pain and swelling. More recently, disease-modifying OA drugs (DMOADs) have shown promising results in preventing cartilage degradation and induction of cartilage regeneration in experimental models as well as initial phases of clinical trials. The diversity of individual needs and complex comorbidities calls for the patient-oriented treatment plan, a goal which can be achieved effectively by multidisciplinary health care team. This review will provide an in-depth review of all clinically accepted conventional and nonconventional interventions for symptomatic relief of pain as well as novel disease modifying pharmacological and non-pharmacological modalities.

Keywords: Diacerein, DMOADs, Glucosamine, Osteoarthritis, Prevalence in Pakistan.

Cite this article:  Rehman, M., Madni, M.A., Khalil, S., Javed, I., Khan, M.I., Mahmood, A., Umair, M., Nasir, T., Saeed, O., Islam, S., 2017. Osteoarthritis Treatment: An In-depth Review of Conventional and Nonconventional Interventions for Symptomatic Relief and Novel Disease Modifying Modalities. PSM Biol. Res., 2(3): BR2017004.


2. Bioinformatics Tools in Agriculture: An Update

Received: 28.Mar.2017; Accepted: 15.June.2017; Abstract Published Online: 21.June.2017
*Corresponding author: Madiha Zaynab; Email:



Bioinformatics plays an important role in agriculture science. As the data amount grows exponentially, there is a parallel growth in tools and methods demand in visualization, integration, analysis, prediction and management of data. At the same time, many researchers in the field of plant sciences are unfamiliar with available methods, databases, and tools of bioinformatics which could lead to missed information opportunities or misinterpretation. Some key concepts of software packages, methods, and databases used in bioinformatics are described in this review. In this review, we have discussed some problems related to biological databases and biological sequence analyses. Gene findings, genome annotation, type of biological database, how to data represent and store was deliberated. Future perspective of bioinformatics tools was also discussed in this review.

Keywords: Biological databases, Gene findings, Homology, Integration, Sequence.

Cite this article:  Zaynab, M., Kanwal, S., Abbas, S., Fida, F., Islam, W., Qasim, M., Rehman, N., Fida, F., Furqan, M., Rizwan, M., Anwar, M., Hussain, A., Tayab, M., 2017. Bioinformatics Tools in Agriculture: An Update. PSM Biol. Res., 2(3): BR2017006.


3. Late Blight of Potato (Phytophthora infestans) II: Employing Integrated Approaches in Late Blight Disease Management


Received: 01.Jun.2017; Accepted: 18.June.2017; Abstract Published Online: 21.June.2017
*Corresponding author: Abdul Majeed; Email:



Late blight of potato is a yield reducing and one of the most costly diseases of potato and other plants belonging to family Solanaceae. Induced by Phytophthora infestans, the disease prevails throughout the world where potato and other Solanaceous crops are cultivated. P. infestans has a broad host range; however, the most severe effects of late blight are more evident on its principal hosts – potato and tomato. Cool and humid environmental conditions ideally propagate the pathogen which may result in severe disease outbreaks with substantial crop losses. Currently, extensive use of chemical fungicides is the only effective measure to control late blight; however, their use offers public, environmental and economic challenges. Thus, it is necessary to address these challenges by employing integrated disease control strategies. This review highlights all those combined techniques which may be effective in controlling late blight of potato while sustaining environment, public health and economic costs incurred by the disease.

Keywords: Integrated disease management, Population dynamics, Fungicides, Environmental hazards, Yield losses.

Cite this article:  Majeed, A., Muhammad, Z., Ahmad, H., 2017. Late Blight of Potato (Phytophthora infestans) II: Employing Integrated Approaches in Late Blight Disease Management. PSM Biol. Res., 2(3): BR2017010.