Environmental pollution arising from heavy metals and minerals in the wastewater is the most serious problem. Due to extensive anthropogenic activities such as industrial operations particularly mining, agricultural processes and disposal of industrial waste materials; their concentration has increased to dangerous levels. Heavy metals in industrial effluent include nickel, chromium, lead, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, selenium and uranium. A wide variety of toxic inorganic and organic chemicals are discharged into the environment as industrial wastes, causing serious water, air, and soil pollution. Water pollution caused by toxic heavy metal ions has become a serious environmental problem. Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth crust and present in the environment as a result of weathering and erosion of parent rocks. In addition to natural sources, they are introduced in the ecosystems through wastewaters originating from anthropogenic sources such as chemical manufacturing, metal finishing, welding, alloys manufacturing, painting, mining, extractive metallurgy, plating, tannery battery industry and from agriculture using fertilizers and pesticides.
Access full text